After attempt of a military coup in Turkey, the state of emergency is imposed, the country suspended the European convention on human rights, the President Erdogan does not exclude possible return of the death penalty to legal proceedings. In the state of emergency mode any presidential resolutions will have a force of law. The introduction of more and more drastic measures publicly is proved by interests of democracy, however, religious rhetoric plays significant rolein the process. Erdogan actively uses an image of the conservative Islamic leader.
The sanctions, started in the country after revolution attempt, have concerned already about 60 thousand people. These are judges, prosecutors, lawyers, military, police officers, civil servants. All deans of faculties of both the State, and private higher education institutions have been dismissed. Tens of journalists and human rights activists heva been detained. It is forbidden to all government officials and academicians (without any exception!) to leave the country. "And it is not the end yet, - Erdogan assures. - We will clear our country of the traitors".
Detentions, arrests and searches over all country are going on, however now they do not look unsystematic now. Now all know: the authorities are looking for the members of the terrorist organization FETO which has been recently prohibited in the country as responsible for failed attempt of revolution. The authorities are looking for those sympathizing people too.
What do we know about the FETO organization?
On June 16, 2016 the criminal court of a small town Erzincan in East Anatoly recognized the FETO organization as terroristic and prohibited its existence in the territory of the country. This event passed almost unnoticed, the Turkish mass media did not write about it. Only on July 14, just on the eve of mutiny, the information on its prohibition appeared in the Turkish news agencies and the leading newspapers.
The court of Erzincan gave sych a definition to FETO: "The terrorist organization of fettulakhist". This name goes back to a name of the influential Turkish religious preacher, Fetullakh Gyulen, living in the USA. It is remarkable that prior to the judgement the FETO organization officially did not exist. Gyulen's followers have a social movement of Hizmet, and only his ardent opponents call it with an offensive nickname of FETO (abbreviation of the name Fettulakh). It is him, the former colleague, and since 2013 - the sworn enemy of Erdogan - the Turkish authorities, literally in half an hour after suppression of failed revolution in the night of July 16, called the inspirer and the organizer of putsch, demanding the preacher's extradition from the USA. And the Minister of social security and work of Turkey, Suleyman Soylu, at 23:00 on July 15 signed the order on Gyulen's deprivation of pension. The judgment of Erzincan court about FETO's prohibition - as it was officially declared - became result of "long investigation" within which it became clear who stood behind the scandalous affairs of the ultranationalistic organization "Ergenikon".
The first case on "Ergenikon" appeared in 2007, then the new cases appeared. People, arrested within these criminal cases, allegedly prepared a military coup in 2003. It was reported, that the high-ranking generals and the staff of the State security bodies wanted to organize a coup d'etat "by creation in the country of the atmosphere of chaos and anarchy". Allegedly, they also were responsible for a number of murders of the famous public figures and journalists.
The course of investigation was opaque to the public, there were many "secret witnesses" involved in the case. As the former Head of the department of investigation of the Istanbul police Ali Fuat Yylmazer declared afterwards, the investigation was controlled personally by the then - Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, he signed all papers regarding the issue. However, the public did not see any powerful proofs of the preparation of revolution. However, several people were sentenced to life imprisonment, many high-ranking military officers received 16 years' prison terms. In total, 400 people were connected to the case.
Right after corruption scandal in 2013 (the police arrested a number of officials, including the sons of three Ministers of the government) and the subsequent cabinet crisis, Erdogan initiated the review of "Ergenikon" case. As a result, all its participants were justified and released on freedom. The circumstances of such an unexpected justification were not disclosed.
Now, by the judgement of Erzincan court, the newly appeared terrorist organization FETO was recognized responsible for the state punishment over the arrested on "Ergenikon" case. That is, actually, according to the court, the members of FETO set up militaries. So, the court declared the organization as being terroristic and prohibited its activity in the territory of the country.
"On a wave of patriotic upsurge they will not try to make it clear whether you support ideas of Islam, a kemalizm (good breeding.) Liberalism or, in general, you adhere to left-wing views. Erdogan wants to clear completely the army, the courts the prosecutor's office, the State security bodies, the education and business spheres of any opposition. Of course, in this process Gyulen's followers are one of main objectives. Now the main guarantee of security is an unconditional personal loyalty to the Turkish President. This is the only admissible ideology, - says the Head of the Center of studying of modern Turkey, Ilshat Sayetov. - Though Islam is often used by Erdogan for political technologies, actually religiousness does not have anything to do with it: these are more symbols and simulacra. The party of the Renaissance and development is similar to the "United Russia" with the only exception - it is externally islamized. Erdogan has been carrying out gradual cleanings of different structures for a long time. In August the Supreme army council will take place, on which Erdogan intended to present the lists of "unreliable" militaries and to demand their resignation. However, the General Staff was not ready to make such concessions. Now, after the coup, this problem does not exist any more. Undobtedly, Gyulen is an influential spiritual leader and has thousands of followers in Turkey. However, in the Turkish army - in a secularism stronghold - the number of the supporters of this old preacher is obviously exaggerated. In the same way, for example, among the dismissed governors appointed earlier personally by Erdogan there were no supporters of Gyulen as well".
… Restriction of the rights of ordinary citizens in connection with an emergency rule, the facilitated procedure of searches, unrationed terms of preliminary detentions and other measures - the newly appeared terrorist organization gave rise literally to unlimited opportunities for prosecutions. From now on even for support of Gyulen's ideas it is possible not only to be discharged from office, but also to obtain real prison term - for sympathing the FETO. And all this is absolutely within the law.
About 3000 soldiers of different ranks were arrested and detained, among them there are 100 generals and admirals, - a third of generals of the country. About 800 judges and prosecutors were detained in 40 out of 81 Turkish provinces, 282 arms procurators have been discharged of positions which amounts to the fifth part of all justice system.* Digits are taken from the messages of the profile Ministries and from the pages of official Turkish mass media
From the Ministry of Internal Affairs 8 777 people have been dismissed "out of their own will" (some of them are arrested), about 3 thousand judges including the Constitutional court (some of them are arrested), 15 thousand 200 school teachers, all 1577 deans of faculties of both the State and private universities have lost their positions.
About 8 thousand workers of administrative sector have been discharged of positions, including 30 governors.
Licenses are withdrawn at 25 mass media.
At the time of signing of this edition, the sanction has concerned 60 thousand people. *
The oldest district of Istanbul, Kadykey, is located in the Asian part of the city. This is a quiet, respectable quarter where you will not meet tourists who prefer the tourists' sights and the vivacity of the European part. Selim is 38 years old, he owns a small salon of tattoos. It is a very popular business in Istanbul; the affairs go well. The tall, smiling person, with the huge portrait of Kemal Ataturk (the founder of the present Republic of Turkey and a symbol of good breeding) tattooed on his shoulder. Selim is a well-known personality in Istanbul, a political activist and the biker. After unfortunate attempt of revolution all his thoughts and caresare about departure with his family abroad.
"We live in a secular and free dstrict, - Selim says, - during the night of the revolution our streets were flooded by Erdogan's supporters. They were very aggressive-minded and obviously tried to provoke fights. By pure miracle, we managed to avoid collisions. I and my friends are against revolutions, but we are against policy of Erdogan, who, by playing with Islamism, incites one part of society against the other. I am not shy men, I took active part in protests against the authorities in 2013. I am not afraid of fights and collisions. But after this mutiny the authorities and their supporters are actually given a free hand. And I am afraid that if collisions begin, I will not be able to protect my family".
He nods towards a sofa where between a little table with the magazines and shelves, filled by tattos paints, the kid is snuffling. "I do not know where Erdogan will lead the country, but I do not want to experiment on myself. Therefore, now I am collecting the necessary documents and I am planning to leave teh country together with my family. It will be hard to start everything from square number one. But there is no other way out. I do not want to leave Turkery forever. I simply want to wait for better times. In the mearest future it will be difficult to live in Turkey". Similar moods are observed today with many people, who do not agree with the policy of the party and the President (and it is about a half of the population of the country). According to the German human rights organizations (in Germany they have the biggest Turkish diaspora in the world), the huge wave of emigrants from Turkey is expected very soon.
The failed attempt of the coup gave the chance to Recep Tayyip Erdogan to impose the state of emergency and to suspend the convention on human rights. At the same time the Turkish authorities emphasize that these actions will not affect the general style of life of the citizens in any way. The experience of France was of great help and it is often cited: after acts of terrorism in Paris in November, 2015 the state of emergency is still going on and the convention on human rights has been suspended.
However, the Turkish law on the state of emergency treats the state of emergency much more widely, than French one. In addition to normal in such cases measures - restrictions of movement, detentions and searches in the building and in motor transport without order, bans on carrying out meetings and demonstrations - the Turkish law assumes also other measures. Not only searches in rooms and building, but also personal inspections of people on streets, prohibition on any meetings, a possibility of suspension of any newspapers, magazines, the input of total censorship of any printed matter, and any video/audioproducts, including those on TV channels, a possibility of closing of any public place and the state control of business have been introduced.
At the moment the authorities do everything possible to maintain in the supporters the high level of "emotions and euphoria" of the rebellious night. I will remind: in night of the revolution people were urged to go outside for "protection of democracy" not only from minarets of mosques, but also by mailing and by sending SMS messages. After the suppression of the revolution attempt, from the TV screen Erdogan called the supporters over all country within a week to come every eveing for support meetings pf "democracy and the duly elected government". And even the introduction o the state of emergency in the country did not cancel this call.
Public transportation means worked for free all the week, and on the squares the flags of the Republic of Turkey (the factory on their production works without stopping now, letting out 80 thousand flags daily) were distrubuted free of charge, as well as food and drinks. Within four days I observed the meetings on a main square of the country - Taksim. Day by day people on the square were coming less and less actively. And at the end of the last week people all over the country once again receive the personal SMS, personally on behalf of Erdogan. These messages were calling for revolutionary upsurge: "Do not leave heroic opposition on squares and streets for the sake of the country, the Homeland and the flag! To teach a lesson to traitors and terrorists, continue the performance in protection of democracy! The owners of our squares are not tanks, but people".
The authorities made every effort to assure that on Sunday - when all across the country there was the holiday of a victory of "democracy" under the leadership of the President and his party - as many people as possible went out in the streets.
From now the free travelling on public transport means is cancelled and the life enters its normal bed - in the state emergency situation for the next three months.ISMAIL TORGUL
, POLITICAL SCIENTIST, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF ANKARA UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMY AND TECHNOLOGIES, ERDOGAN'S SUPPORTER
- I would not begin to dramatize a situation and to hurry with conclusions. Yes, there are cleanings including those in the education system. But I think that all this is a temporary measure, only this way it is possible to get rid of gyulenist. Concerning those dismissed, I hope, the objective investigation will be made, and the one who will be found not guilty will be able to return to his work. Though the state of emergency mode allows to discharge of positions without payments of compensations, put under the law, and without the right to be recover position afterwards through court proceedings. In general, I do not notice any fear in people because of the events, it is rather a desire that it will end as soon as possible.
The state of emergency mode is a measure necessary now to prevent possible destabilization in the country, including that on the Turkish-Syrian border, and in the southeast of the country, in the Kurdish areas. But the President, as well as the Prime Minister constantly emphasize that this measure is directed not against human rights, but only aimed at protection of our country. And I trust them. The same concerns the potential introduction of the death penalty. Yes, Erdogan allowed such an opportunity, and his supporters supported it completely, but it seems to me, all this was in the first days, made and decided on emotions. Turkey is the member of the Council of Europe, our President made a lot of things so that Turkey became the candidate for the European Union. Therefore, to recede from democratic principles is not in his interests.
Yes, now the President has the right to publish decisions which have a force of law. Formally they have to pass through the Parliament, but it is not a problem, Erdogan's party has majority in the Parliament. Theoretically, it can easily be abused. Recep Tayyip Erdogan is a pragmatic politician. It seems to me, he understands that such actions from his party will be fraught with yet deeper split in society, and the opposition of all colors will be ready to take response steps that can lead to unpredictable effects. And destabilization is not necessary to our authorities. Now emotions and euphoria will subside, and everything will fall into place and order.