China, Russia and India are among 11 countries targeted by the Obama administration for leaving American producers of music, movies and other copyrighted material open to rampant piracy.
The U.S. is placing the 11 countries on a "priority watch list" that subjects them to extra scrutiny and could lead to sanctions if the U.S. brings cases to the World Trade Organization.
Also on the list again are Algeria, Argentina, Chile, Indonesia, Kuwait, Thailand, Ukraine and Venezuela.
"It is more important than ever to prevent foreign governments and competitors from ripping off United States innovators," U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman said.
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Ecuador and Pakistan were removed from the list this year. Ecuador reinstated criminal penalties for large-scale counterfeiting. Pakistan set up intellectual property courts.