Grenfell Inquiry: What five reports reveal

Five reports have been published at the start of the fact-finding stage of the public inquiry into the Grenfell Tower fire, in which 72 people died. They cover the tower's safety measures, how the fire spread and the evacuation. Here are the key findings.
Professor Niamh Nic Daeid: Cause and spread of fire
The kitchen in flat 16 where the fire started
Professor Nic Daeid, an expert in forensic science at the University of Dundee, concluded there was "insufficient information and analysis" to determine the exact cause of the fire which occurred in flat 16 on the 4th floor of Grenfell Tower.Her report said the fire began in the south-east corner of the kitchen - and "it is more likely than not that this was in or around the area of the tall fridge-freezer". Laminate flooring underneath the fridge-freezer had a burn pattern not seen on the rest of the floor, suggesting the floor immediately under the appliance was exposed to more heat than that on either side of it, it said.
The burn marks underneath the fridge-freezer in flat 16
The report found the fire left the flat via the kitchen window, and "at some point re-entered through the window of the bedroom next to the living room of flat 16 causing further damage to the flat".
The fire was "more likely than not to be accidental cause and not a deliberate act".It said a further examination of electrical materials recovered from the flat by a forensic electrical engineer was needed to determine what caused the fire."No in-depth analysis of the electrical system or combustibility analysis of the tall fridge-freezer of related artefacts has been undertaken by any fire investigator. Only visual non-destructive examinations have taken place so far," it said.Read the full report
Dr Barbara Lane: Fire protection measures
The fire pictured at 01.26, by which point the 'stay put' policy had 'effectively failed'
Dr Lane, a chartered fire engineer, said advice to "stay put" during the Grenfell Tower fire had "effectively failed" within around half an hour of the blaze starting.When the fire was first reported at 00:54 BST, residents were initially given advice to "stay put" inside the building but this advice had "effectively failed" by 01:26, her report said.A change in policy recommending residents try to leave was not made until 02:47 BST, one hour and 53 minutes after the first emergency call.She said there was "an early need for total evacuation of Grenfell Tower" but it was not an "easy decision to make".
Why are people told to 'stay put'?
What happened at Grenfell Tower?
Grenfell Tower inquiry: What is happening?
Who were the victims?
Dr Lane also said that cladding on Grenfell Tower did not comply with recommended fire performance criteria.Multiple fires were allowed to spread because of combustible materials by the windows and within the cladding system.Whilst attempts had been made to construct fire stopping compartments within the cladding, they were "installed incorrectly, and no evidence has been provided that they were ever tested for performance in the type of cladding installed at Grenfell Tower," the report said.Dr Lane's report also said:
Flat entrance doors were non-compliant with fire test evidence and doors going to the stairs "do not appear to have been upgraded since installation in 1972"
The ventilation system - which was meant to prevent smoke from entering the stairwell - did not appear to work as intended
Issues with fire lifts meant they could not be used to transport equipment or residents up and down the building
The water supply system was "not compliant with the design guidance in force at the time of original construction, and is also non-compliant with current standards".
"The number of non-compliances signify a culture of non-compliance at Grenfell Tower," the report said.Read the full report
Professor Luke Bisby: Ignition of the facade materials
Polyethylene material in the cladding was the primary cause of the spread of the fire
Professor Bisby, an expert in fire and structures at the University of Edinburgh, said evidence "strongly supports" the hypothesis that polyethylene material in the cladding on Grenfell was the primary cause of the fire's spread."The ACM (aluminium composite material) product on Grenfell Tower incorporates a highly combustible PE polymer filler which melts, drips, and flows at elevated temperature. The polyethylene filler material is expected to release large amounts of energy during combustion, to rapidly lose its mechanical properties, and to cause the separation of the ACM panels and cassettes," his report said.Using this type of cladding on buildings should be carefully considered as it represents a "clear and significant" fire hazard, it warned.The report also found that vertical cavities within the cladding structure played a role in the spread of the fire, as did the insulation, although evidence was inconclusive.The wind was not thought to be a significant factor. Prof Bisby also recommended the inquiry consider why firefighters doused the cladding immediately below the original fire - while it was still small - but not above or to the side. Read the full report
Prof Jose Torero: Spread of the fire">
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Read the full reportA summary of the fifth report will be added soon.
Day-by-day: the inquiry so far
Day 1: Tribute to baby as Grenfell inquiry opens
Day 2: Families walk out as Grenfell video shown
Day 3: Victim's son 'prays for death' to join father in heaven
Day 4: Grenfell niece tribute distress for aunt
Day 5: 'We will never play again'
Day 6: Grenfell Tower dad blames firefighters
Day 7: Disabled woman was placed on 18th floor
Grenfell Tower fire
Grenfell Tower Inquiry
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