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Nobel Prize: Could Greta Thunberg win it and why is it important?

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Teenage climate activist Greta Thunberg is among the nominees for this year's Nobel Peace Prize - the 100th to be awarded - with the winner being announced on Friday. But what is the Nobel Prize and why is it so prestigious[/img]
What is the Nobel Prize and why is it important?
The Nobel Prize is a series of annual awards given in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace.They are awarded to people "who have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind" in the previous 12 months.The quote is from the will of Swedish businessman - and inventor of dynamite - Alfred Nobel. He left most of his fortune in a fund to launch the awards, which were first presented in 1901.
In 1968, an economic sciences prize was added by Sweden's central bank, although it does not count as a Nobel Prize.
Who are some of the most famous winners?
Barack Obama (right) with his Nobel Peace Prize alongside Thorbjoern Jagland, of Norway's Nobel Committee
Former US President Barack Obama won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009, for "his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and co-operation between peoples". President Obama said he was "surprised and deeply humbled" and would use it as a "call to action". However, there was criticism of his award, especially as he had been in office for only 12 days before the nomination deadline. Other notable Nobel Peace Prize winners include former US President Jimmy Carter (2002), child education activist Malala Yousafzai (shared 2014), the European Union (2012), the United Nations and its then-general-secretary, Kofi Annan, (shared 2001) and Saint Teresa of Calcutta (1979).Albert Einstein (physics 1921),Marie Curie (physics 1903 and chemistry 1911), and Harold Pinter (literature 2005) have also received Nobel Prizes.Two people - author and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre in 1964 and Vietnamese politician Le Duc Tho in 1973 - rejected the prize, and four others were forced to decline by their countries.In 2016, there was uncertainty over whether singer Bob Dylan would accept the literature award before he finally delivered his lecture for the prize in June.
[img]https://news.files.bbci.co.uk/include/idt2/assets/c7ce360e-5010-4af7-b33d-24fb71eb3c26" alt="Malala" class="Img__Image-s1jp862x-0 lmLsXj"/>BBCNobel Prize in numbersStatistics from 1901 to 2018
935Nobel Laureates (908 people, 27 organisations)
17Age of youngest winner - education activist Malala Yousafzai
96Age of oldest winner - scientist Arthur Ashkin
52Prizes won by women
6People who declined an award
Source: Nobel Prize website
Who will win this year's Nobel Peace Prize[/img]
We only know Ms Thunberg is a nominee because the three Norwegian MPs who nominated her publicised their decision. However, it is not known if the nomination was in time for this year's award.There have been reports US President Donald Trump has also been nominated but there is concern the entry may have been falsified.Other names who are said to be in the running include Ethiopia Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, Jacinda Ardern, the prime minister of New Zealand, and indigenous Brazilian leader Raoni Metuktire.The only concrete information is 301 candidates have been nominated for the 2019 Nobel Peace Prize - 223 individuals and 78 organisations - the fourth highest number in history.
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How does the Nobel Prize work?
Different organisations award the prize in each category every year. Five of the six are chosen in Sweden, while the Nobel Peace Prize is selected in Norway. Academics, university professors, scientists, previous winners and others all submit nominations.Prize winners are called laureates, to signify the laurel wreath given to victors of contests in ancient Greece.More than one, but no more than three, people can win each prize.
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What have some prize winners bought with their winnings?
Marie and Pierre Curie used their physics prize money in 1903 for further scientific research, and 2006 physics winner John Mather donated his cash to his foundation.In 1993, British biochemist Richard Roberts spent his medicine winnings on a croquet lawn and fellow 1993 laureate Phillip Sharp bought a 100-year-old Federal-style house. The 2001 medicine winner, Sir Paul Nurse, bought himself a high-end motorbike.Meanwhile, 2006 literature laureate Orhan Pamuk established a museum in Istanbul.
Who are the 2019 winners so far?
medicine: Sir Peter Ratcliffe, William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza
physics: James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz
chemistry: John B Goodenough, M Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino
literature: Peter Handke
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